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Diesel engine cylinder and the piston "burn" the cause of the problem and elimination method
Update:2018-12-15 15:27 Tags:
Diesel engine cylinder and the piston "burn" the cause of the problem and elimination method
1) diesel engine often work in full load when a sudden stop.
Diesel engine suddenly stop when full load working, often because of diesel engine at full load, the temperature inside the cylinder moment can reach more than 2000 k, full load after downtime, because individual cylinder is in the expansion stroke, high temperature in cylinder still line, can reach more than 1000 k. At this point, if not take timely measures to turn the engine scavenging, then the local burning-out cylinder piston may appear. After restarting engine full load working within minutes of the cylinder piston will appear serious burn roof failure.
Method:
First to avoid diesel engine suddenly outages during full load operation, if there is a similar failure, must immediately turn the diesel engine crankshaft several laps, or use the starting motor drag diesel engine running several times, each time 5 to 6 seconds, and judgment diesel engine suddenly stop reason as soon as possible.
Note: before did not determine the cause of the problem, do not blindly to restart the engine.
2) diesel engine lubricating oil has a problem.
If choose not appropriate lubricating oil, such as low temperature chose high temperature oil, or lubricating oil for a long time without replacement, make the engine start become bad lubrication conditions. If the diesel engine is not fully preheat is working in full load, may lead to produce cylinder engine failure.
If choose the poor quality or low quality grades of lubricating oil, lubricating oil may also be due to bad lubrication, accelerate the cylinder wear, crankcase exhaust gas pressure, the combustion chamber caused by increased oil and carbon living sierra cylinder or burn. Crankcase emission closed cycle system should pay special attention to this problem.
Method:
In accordance with the requirement to choose diesel engine lubricating oil.
Depending on the season, choose different type of lubricating oil. If didn't choose suitable lubricating oil, diesel engine will cause serious damage. Choose the general requirements of lubricating oil is: after confirm the quality of the lubricating oil level, the summer high temperature using high temperature lubricating oil (such as 40, 50, 60), winter cold area with low temperature lubricating oil (such as 0 w, 5 w and 10 w, etc.). Other areas use mixed oil (15 w40, 20 w40, etc.).
In accordance with the instructions required to choose the quality levels of lubricating oil, can choose higher than using specification of lubricating oil, but must not choose below the specification requirements of the lubricating oil (such as: operation instruction requires the use of CD grade oil, can choose CE, CF quality grades of lubricating oil, can not choose the CC, CB quality grades of lubricating oil).
3) there is something wrong with the diesel engine fuel.
Inferior fuel, the fuel injector spray atomization quality is poor, after injection medium oil particle mean diameter is large, on the one hand, the ignition delay period of diesel engine is extended, once when the diesel engine on fire, the pressure rise rate rise rapidly, thus make diesel engine work rough, even produce type cylinder; On the other hand increase after combustion, exhaust temperature, smoke, and serious pollution of combustion chamber, produced by incomplete combustion products were mixed with some in lubricating oil cylinder wall, accumulated in the ring grooves, blocked the tank wall, make the piston ring card dead, destroyed the seal of the combustion chamber, lead to gas leakage. Leakage of high temperature gas cylinder wall lubricating oil film may burn that worsened the lubrication status of piston, this greatly increased risk of pull on the top of the cylinder and piston to burn.
Method:
Used in strict accordance with the requirements of selecting qualified fuel, if is limited by conditions, not high quality fuel oil, must pay attention to the maintenance of the fuel filter.
4) low speed diesel engine running time is too long.
Diesel engine no-load running at low speed for a long time, as the temperature is low, the movement parts of gap is relatively small, will aggravate wear of moving parts. If the piston ring and cylinder liner wear is too big, can make the oil in the combustion chamber, can lead to a diesel engine work weakness, take the blue smoke, the combustion chamber carbon increased, the big work load cause diesel engine cylinder or burning on the top of the piston failure.
Excluded methods: avoid diesel engine at low speed with no load running for a long time, under normal circumstances, the diesel engine idle speed running not more than 30 minutes. Winter use more attention should be paid to such problems.
5) diesel engine fuel injection pump oil amount is too big or uneven oil.
Each cylinder diesel engine oil and fuel delivery time if you don't even, will worsen part cylinder combustion process, the formation of carbon deposit or after severe burn, diesel combustion heat cannot be used for work, and make the part of the piston within the cylinder temperature is too high, cause the material thermal fatigue and burning fuse. Too much oil is caused by the cylinder or piston top one of the main reasons.
Method:
In strict accordance with the technical requirements for adjustment of fuel injection pump oil, ensure each cylinder oil error is not more than 1%. And regular inspection and calibration of oil.
6) diesel engine nozzles.such work bad.
When there is drip nozzle, the secondary injection, atomization adverse situations, such as piston top drip in the local temperature is too high, the thermal stress increases, so that the ablation. Nozzle spray, drip can also lead to diesel engine smoke while working.
Method:
Regularly check adjust nozzle, proofreading injection pressure as required.
7) diesel engine run overload for a long time.
Launched the pilot time overload overspeed, or engine cooling, piston with heat stress and mechanical stress for a long time, easy fatigue ablation, easy to produce cylinder.
Excluded methods: avoid diesel engine full load for a long time work, full load running time at full speed for a period of time (automotive machine 30 minutes, engineering machinery with an hour or so) should be slow cooling after 3 to 5 minutes. This to extend the service life of diesel engine is very important.
8) diesel engine starter is in full load operation.
Diesel engine starting to working in full load, the diesel engine temperature is low, the clearance between the piston cylinder liner is very small, and lubrication conditions
Not good, easy to cause cylinder.
Method:
Whether summer or winter, don't immediately start after high speed diesel engine or loading operation, pay particular attention to winter. Should be in idle speed or low speed diesel engine starts (800 ~ 1000 RPM) no-load running 3 minutes (summer) to 5 minutes (winter), and then began to work load, and gradually increase to full load.
9) piston cylinder liner quality has a problem.
If exist when the piston casting porosity, loose, micro defects such as cracks, slag inclusion, under the effect of high temperature and high pressure, the porosity, loose, micro cracks can become a source of fatigue and cause fatigue damage; The piston in the slag melting first, causing burning-out piston.
Method:
Choose original factory or the quality of the piston.
10) piston top clearance is not correct.
If the assembly, piston top clearance adjustment is not correct, will affect the compression ratio of diesel engine, whether big or small gap, can lead to burning diesel engine cylinder or piston failure. If small compression ratio, it will lower the compression pressure and temperature, fuel combustion at a slower pace, after increasing, diesel engine could overheat. If the compression ratio is larger, can make the compression pressure and temperature increase, diesel engine operating load, also resulted in diesel engine overheat.
Method:
Diesel engine assembly, adjust the piston top clearance in strict accordance with the requirement and strictly in accordance with the requirements for cylinder head bolt screw fastening.
11) fuel delivery advance Angle is not correct.
Fuel injection advance Angle is wrong, no matter to delay or ahead of time, will cause the fuel combustion is incomplete, work is not easy to cause overheating, diesel engine piston cylinder or burning roof failure.
Excluded methods: adjust the fuel injection advance Angle in strict accordance with the requirement.
12) oil cooling nozzle is damaged.
Some high power engine oil on the body is equipped with cooling nozzle, through to the inner cavity injection piston engine oil to help cooling heat dissipation. If the oil cooling nozzle clogging, the piston will accumulate heat to heat up, also easy to cause the piston to burn. Oil cooling nozzle failure cylinder or piston burn with regularity. If a cylinder is always cylinder or burn, after ruling out other reasons, then the cylinder there must be something wrong with the oil cooling nozzle (blockage or damage).
Method:
Oil change cooling nozzle or use a special tool to proofread the nozzle position.
Other adjustment reason
13).Inlet temperature is too high - inlet temperature is too high, causes the air into the cylinder temperature increases, the diesel engine overheating, working long hours could lead to pull cylinder and piston top failure.
The piston at the top of the carbon deposit. Piston at the top of the carbon deposit make the piston top local overheating and produces high temperature, when the local high temperature above the melting point of material, will the piston at the top of the formation of molten hole.
Piston ring bond or fracture. Piston ring bond or fracture will result in piston ring cannot fit closely with the cylinder wall, the heat can't timely transfers on the top of the piston, at the same time also will lead under the high temperature gas channeling, results make the piston head and piston ring groove parts in overheating and ablation.
Engine knock. Engine work, the piston at the top to the cyclical combustion power machinery, its instantaneous wallop of 7 mpa, direct effects on the impact of the piston top can reach more than 100 kn. If the engine detonation, its impact will be doubled.
Piston top under the action of thermal stress and cyclical combustion power, thermal fatigue and mechanical fatigue and eventually causing burning-out and cracking. And causes of detonation engine mainly or premature ignition timing, cylinder, fuel supply time, high compression ratio, excessive carbon deposit on the top of the piston induced by the hot
point of preignition too lower, the gasoline octane number.
According to these analysis can know, cause burn on the top of the piston to prevent piston diesel engine cylinder or burning on the top of the key is to strengthen the maintenance of the engine, the engine keep good technical condition, avoid engine overheating, carbon deposit, explosion and explosion shock phenomenon; Correct assembly and use, to avoid the engine overload for a long time.
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